"Heelers, Boodlers, and War Bummers: Political Bossism in Cleveland"
To acquaint students with the politics of Cleveland at the turn
of the century. To make students aware of existence and influence
of political machines in Cleveland during the period immediately
before the era of political reform.
Handout 1 - Heelers, Boodlers, and Ward Drummers
|federal plan || ||jobbery || ||heelers|
|boodlers || ||war bummers || ||bossism|
|machine politics || ||Robert McKisson || ||grafter|
|Czar Bernstein || ||Maurice Maschke || ||Tenderloin|
|Municipal Association|| || |
- What were local politics like in Cleveland at the turn of
- How extensive was the influence of political machines in Cleveland
government at the turn of the century?
- Distribute copies of the handout to the students. Have the
students read the handout and answer the questions for discussion
|a. ||How did the new constitution (charter) of the city of Cleveland change the government of the city?|
|b. ||Why do you think this new charter changed peoples' attitudes about their participation in city politics?|
|c. ||How did the vision of the "new reformers" fail the majority of the population of Cleveland?|
|d. ||How did the operation of machine politics have an adverse effect on the running of the city government?|
|e. ||Why was McKisson's power finally broken?|
- For additional information on reform politics in Cleveland,
the teacher and students are referred to "Mounting Crisis
and Reform: Cleveland's Political Development," by Thomas
F. Campbell, PhD. in The Birth of Modern Cleveland, 1865 -1930.
Campbell, Thomas F. and Edward M. Miggins, eds. Associated University
Presses, 1988. This article contains an excellent overview of
reform politics in Cleveland from the party machines of the end
of the 19th century through the reform politics of Tom L. Johnson